If you are thinking of breeding, you may want to visit this site. It has been designed for those who want to learn more about
breeding, without actually having to breed their dog.
Is Breeding For You? Try: "Virtual Breeding!"
The Myths and Facts of Spaying and Neutering
The animal population is exploding. Each
year millions of unwanted pets are born and disposed of. The primary causes of pet euthanasia are the failure by owners to
have their pets spayed or neutered and animals that are abandoned or relinquished to shelters because of obedience problems.
This is tragic and reprehensible ... but also preventable.
The procedure of removing the reproductive
organs of either a male or a female animal is called neutering. Specifically, the procedure for females is call spaying. The
procedure for males is called castration or altering, but is also loosely called neutering.
The obvious reason spaying
and neutering is so critical is to prevent unwanted, accidental pregnancies. There are many more benefits, though, that are
good for the pet as well as the owner.
This preventive surgery can be performed as early as 2 to 4 months
of age. Recent scientific research shows evidence that a younger puppy or kitten does better with the anesthesia and the surgical
process. Talk to your veterinarian about when your particular pet should be spayed. Many veterinarians still choose to perform
this routine procedure at about 5 to 6 months of age.
For their own sakes, all female dogs or cats should be spayed
unless they are going be professionally bred or shown. It does not matter if she will ever be allowed outdoors unsupervised,
the physical benefits of an early spaying operation are so great that there are no valid reasons not to have it performed.
In addition, you avoid behavioral problems that are related to sexual drive in an unspayed female pet.
of an Early Spay
It is simply not reasonable that a female puppy should be allowed to have one heat or one litter before
she's spayed. There are no benefits to be gained from waiting and many to be gained by an early spaying operation.
pet in heat will bleed and consequently spot the carpet and furniture. Owners who have indoor pets have to cover the furniture
to avoid this spotting. Carpet will also need to be neutralized to remove the smell and the stain. Although there are little
pads that can be worn with a strap, most pets find them uncomfortable and try to take them off.
A female pet that
is spayed before her first heat has a greatly reduced risk of developing ovarian, uterine or breast cancer, the second most
common malignancy in pets. In addition, she will never develop pyometra (an infection of the uterus). Pyometra can become
seriously life-threatening and require an emergency spay operation. These infections very commonly occur in older, unspayed
Of course, an early spay operation also prevents an unplanned, unwanted pregnancy. If your unspayed female
puppy does accidentally become pregnant, it can be potentially damaging to her health, since she is very young. A six-month-old
puppy is in no way suited for motherhood.
As to the argument that spayed female pets always get fat, this is not necessarily
the case. It is true that spayed pets can be more prone to obesity, but that's because as a female puppy nears physical maturity
she becomes somewhat less physically active and requires fewer calories for energy. Physical maturity often follows shortly
behind a spaying operation. Therefore, the spaying is often blamed if a puppy begins to put on weight. If you do not overfeed
your pet and give her plenty of daily exercise, she will not gain too much weight. If you don't, she'll get fat, whether or
not she's been spayed.
Behavior Benefits of an Early Spay
During the stage in the heat cycle when a female is
receptive toward males, she may attempt to escape from the house. She may also indulge in territorial urine marking, especially
if there are other pets (male or female) in the household or immediate neighborhood.
An unspayed female may also suffer
from a disorder known as "false pregnancy" which mimics all of the physical and behavioral stages of pregnancy, even though
there are no fertilized eggs. It's especial common in pets that are very dependent on their owners, and can occur even when
no mating has taken place. Some females go through a false pregnancy every time they come into heat.
A very troublesome
side effect of having an unspayed female is the necessity of keeping her away from unwelcome Romeos and keeping them away
from her. Males will appear on your doorstep, hang around your yard and fight one another. In addition to these problems,
female cats and even some dogs may "cry." You think your pet is in pain and take it to the vet only to find out it is in heat
and looking for a mate.
At around six or seven months of age, your male will become sexually mature. The
operation is best performed when the animal is young, although it can be done at any age in a pet's life. As with spaying,
this procedure is now considered preventive surgery.
Neutering does not change the male's masculine appearance. He
will still acquire his secondary sex characteristics, regardless of his age when the procedure is done.
doesn't affect hunting ability or watchdog behavior. He most likely will be less aggressive in some areas, especially toward
other males. As with altered females, male pets will not get fat if given a good, balanced diet and enough exercise.
Benefits of an Early Neuter
Unaltered males are subject to a number of hormone-related medical problems as they age. They
may develop prostate, perianal and testicular tumors and cancers. Neutering greatly reduces the risk of these medical problems.
Behavior Benefits of an Early Neuter
Neutering is particularly effective as a preventive measure against a number
of common behavioral problems.
One aspect of male canine behavior is aggression toward other males. As a male reaches
full physical and sexual maturity, he becomes more and more protective of what he considers "his" territory. His definition
of "his" area tends to change, and the boundaries enlarge, until sometimes an entire square block or country mile falls within
Often, owners are not aware of this until a tragedy occurs and their male or another male is severely
hurt or even killed. "But he's always so gentle" is a common cry of an upset owner in these circumstances. And he is -- until
another male invades property that he considers his own. Then his male territorial instinct overrides any social behavior
he may have learned and he defends his turf, sometimes to the death.
Along with this instinct comes roaming behavior.
A sexually active male must patrol the boundaries of his property and constantly widen them. In addition, he's always on the
lookout for receptive females and, if there is a female in heat within many miles, he'll find her. Along with this comes the
potential to be hit by a car or otherwise injured, or become lost. Often, a male hangs around the area for days on end, apparently
forgetting that he even has a home. Terrible fights can occur when several males pursue a female in heat, even if she is confined
indoors, and the resulting veterinarian bills may be staggering. Research shows us that of all the positive behavior changes
that are a result of neutering, roaming shows the greatest degree of change.
An uncastrated male may indulge in territorial
urine marking -- urinating on every upright surface he can find. This is usually related either to a female coming into heat
somewhere within his range or another male moving into the neighborhood. You may not be aware of either occurrence, but you
will soon know it when your housetrained pet has suddenly "broken training" and is marking up your house. In the absence of
other male animals, males may also take out their aggressive territorial protection on humans. Overprotectiveness of family
members may manifest itself by growling or nipping at visitors in your home.
For male cats, a neutered male is less
likely to spray (almost all unneutered males cats spray). They also yowl as if in terrible pain. You may think your cat is
in pain and take it to the vet only to find out he is in search of a mate.
All of these behaviors can usually be corrected
by a combination of neutering and training, but it's difficult to break a habit that has become ingrained.
makes life more pleasant because it removes some of the behavioral traits with which people find it difficult to live -- traits
that may land the pet in a shelter.
The operation itself is certainly not cruel, but a fairly simple
and routine procedure that actually helps the pet. When done on a young animal, it entails, at most, one or two days of discomfort.
Owners will be given instructions about withholding food and water to the pet prior to the surgery. Follow these directions
Most veterinarians will give a thorough physical prior to the anesthesia. It often includes a blood test
and urinalysis. These tests are necessary to make sure there aren't underlying medical problems such as kidney or liver disease,
diabetes or chronic infection that would put the patient at greater risk during surgery.
For females, the ovaries
and uterus will be removed, thus, eliminating the production of eggs. For males, the testes will be removed, thus, eliminating
the source of sperm.
After the operation, the animal will continue to be monitored. Some veterinarians choose to keep
the animal overnight for observation, but most animals that have surgery in the morning can go home late in the afternoon
to rest and recuperate.
Again, there will be specific instructions given to the owner about the care of the pet for
the next several days. Follow these directions carefully and your pet will recover quickly and completely in a short while.
To summarize, spaying and neutering is good for everyone:
It's good for your pet. It reduces the risk
of certain reproductive cancers and diseases for both males and females. Spayed or neutered pets also generally live longer.
For females, it eliminates the heat cycle and therefore, the nervousness, blood and unwelcome males. For males, it stops the
mating desire, reduces mounting and the tendency to roam.
It's good for you. Usually less expensive to license, a
discount is given if your pet is spayed or neutered. It reduces the risk of unwanted litters. There will be no more problems
with blood stains, males breaking into your yard, pets running away in search of a mate, and the job of taking care of and
finding homes for an unwanted litter. Your pet will be happier and so will you.
It's good for the community. Homeless
pets often create serious problems. They destroy property, spread disease and cost a lot of money to control. It's an agonizing
job to euthanize animals because of irresponsible breeding.
Reasons People do not Spay or Neuter Their Pet
be too cruel to do that to my pet!"
Your pet does not have the ability to hold a grudge against you because you made this
decision. If your pet could talk, he or she would thank you for it!
"I'm afraid of putting my pet under. Won't it
Although neutering and spaying is a surgical procedure that does require general anesthesia, the pet feels
nothing during the procedure and the risks are minimal. Certainly the benefits far outweigh the risks. There is only a slight
discomfort and the pet will usually be back on their feet with normal activities within 24 to 72 hours.
"I don't have
enough money for this procedure."
You can't afford not to do it. Most communities have humane shelters and low-cost spay/neuter
clinics that offer affordable services. Contact your veterinarian, your local shelter, or the PETsMART store nearest you.
It can be much more costly to you if you have a pregnant female with pups to take care of, or if you have to split the veterinarian
bills with your neighbor because your male got their female pregnant.
"I want to breed my pet ... it's a purebred."
Purebred breeding is very complicated. There are some things you should ask yourself before you do this. Do you have a
five-generation pedigree for the animal? Is there a minimum of eight titles (AKC/UKC: Champions, Obedience CD, CDX, etc.)
in the last three generations? Does the animal have a stable temperament? Does the animal fit the breed standard? Are the
animal and prospective mate healthy? Is the animal certified free of genetic diseases? Do you have the time it takes to breed?
A good breeder will be careful about the animals they breed and will offer to take a animal back if it does not work out.
"I can make some extra money selling the puppies/kittens."
Breeding dogs and cats isn't always a money making
experience. There are the veterinary bills, shots, food, and advertising costs. There is also the time spent caring for the
puppies and kittens and showing them to prospective owners. Don't forget the temptation to keep "just one" that often happens
with the first litter. What if the pregnancy puts the mother in medical danger that causes her to suffer or even die -- can
you put a price on the loss of a pet? Also, for every heat cycle a female goes through, her odds of having medical problems
later multiplies by ten. By the time the puppies or kittens are sold, has a significant amount of money really been made?
"My male cat/dog will be kept indoors away from any females."
Male pets will smell females in heat and many have
been known to escape their homes to reach the female.
"I want my male dog to be a guard dog and I need to keep him
Most pets will be more reliable and responsible after neutering and are often easier to train because of
stabilized hormones. What makes a male dog a good guard dog is training, not hormones.
"My kids need to learn about
the birds and the bees -- I want them to see the birth process."
Children can experience the birthing process in other
ways rather than at the expense of the family pet.
This method of housebreaking is focused on preventing "accidents" instead of waiting for accidents
to happen. The goal is to make it easy for the puppy to do the right thing in the first place. Training in this
way is faster and more effective than punishing the dog for mistakes. YOU play the most important part in the success or failure
of this method - you must be patient, determined and reliable for it to work. If you
already own an adult dog with
housebreaking problems, you can use this method to start fresh just as you would with a puppy.
method also requires the use of a dog crate or at least, a small, confined area for the pup to stay in when he can't be supervised.
A crate isn't cruel! It's your dog's own private room where he can rest and stay safe, secure and out of trouble.
Just like a small child, your puppy needs to be protected from hurting himself and destroying your furniture. A crate
will make the job so much easier!
The first few weeks of
owning a puppy are some of the hardest and most important. Spending extra time and effort now will pay off in a big
Don't blame the puppy if you're lazy!
Before you start,
here are some essential housebreaking facts:
*1. Adult dogs can be housebroken in the same
way as puppies.
*2. Puppies have limited bladder control.
*3. Dogs & puppies like to be clean and to sleep in a clean area
*4. All dogs do best when kept to a routine schedule
*5. Dogs have to
go potty when...
- they wake up in
the morning or after a nap
1/2 hour after eating
- before they
go to sleep
If a dog and especially a puppy is not allowed to relieve itself
at those times, it will most likely have an accident. Don't
wait for the dog to "tell" you that it has to go out. Just
assume that he does and put him outside.
Housebreaking Baby Puppies
puppies, under 3 months of age, have limited bladder control and reflexes. They usually don't know they're going to
"go" until the moment they do! It's not realistic to expect them to tell you ahead of time. If you're observant, you'll
see that a puppy who's looking for a place to go potty will suddenly circle about while sniffing the floor. The sniffing is
instinct - he's looking for a place that's already been used.
If he can't find one, he'll start one! By preventing
accidents in the house, you'll teach him that the only appropriate bathroom is the one outside!
Ideally, you're reading
this before you've brought your new puppy home. If you already have your puppy, just pick up the schedule at an appropriate
Set up a dog crate or small, confined area (the smaller the better.) Using a dog crate will be more
effective. The size of the crate is important - if it's too large, the puppy will have room to use one end as a bathroom.
If you've bought a crate for him to "grow into", you can also get dividers to reduce the inner space while he's small.
If he must be left alone while you're at work, then a larger crate is okay. Put a stack of newspapers at one end for
him to use when you can't be home to let him out.
Also in the crate should be a water dish (you can get one that attaches
to the side of the crate and is harder to spill), sleeping pad and toys. Put the crate where he isn't shut away from
the family. If you're
using a confined area instead, a baby gate across the doorway is preferable to closing the
door and isolating your puppy.
Your puppy might not like the crate at first. Don't give in to his complaining
or tantrums! If you're sure he isn't hungry or has to go potty, ignore his yowling. If he gets really obnoxious,
reach inside the
crate, give him a little shake by the scruff of his neck and say NO in a deep, stern voice. Eventually
he'll settle down and sleep which is what crates are for! If you give a tempting treat every time you put the dog in
his crate, he'll soon look forward to going in.
The crate is intended to be his sleeping and feeding place and is where
he should be when you can't keep a close eye on him. If you give him the run of the house at this age, you can expect
instinctively keep their sleeping areas clean. If you've allowed him to go potty when he needs
to, he won't dirty his crate if he can help it. Once he's developed better control, he won't need the newspapers unless
going to be gone all day. Change the papers several times a day if they've been soiled.
Puppy's First Night Home
Get off on the right foot at
the beginning! Carry the puppy from your car to the yard. Set him on the grass and let him stay there until he
potties. When he does, tell him how wonderful he is! After bringing
the pup inside, you can play with him for
an hour. Plan on taking the puppy outside every two hours (at least) while he's awake. Don't wait for him to tell
you that he has to go!
Feed the puppy his supper in his crate. Don't let him out for half an hour and when
you do, carry him outside to potty before you do anything else. Wait for him to have a bowel movement before bringing
him back in. Some pups get their jobs done quickly, others may take half an hour. If he's being slow, walk around
the yard encouraging him to follow you. Walking tends to get things moving, so to speak!
***Always take the puppy
outside first thing when you let him out of the crate and always CARRY the puppy to the door!! This is important.
Puppies seem to have a reflex peeing action that takes affect the moment they step out of the crate onto your carpeting.
If you let him walk to the door, he'll probably have an accident before he gets there. Part of this training method
is psychological - you want the puppy to feel grass under his feet when he goes to the bathroom, not your carpeting!
another short play period, take the pup outside before bedtime, then tuck him into his crate for the night. If he cries
during the night, he probably has to go out. Carry him outside to potty, then put him back in the crate with a
minimum of cuddling. If you play with him, he might decide he doesn't want to go back to sleep! Puppies usually
sleep through the night within a few days.
a regular schedule of potty trips and feedings. This helps you to control the times he has to go out and prevent accidents
in the house. First thing in the morning - before you have your coffee - carry
the puppy outside. He can then
come in and play for an hour. Feed breakfast in the crate and don't let him out again for 1/2 hour. Then carry
him back outside for potty. Puppies usually have a bowel movement after each meal so give him time to accomplish it.
Now he can have another inside playtime for an hour or so. Don't give him free run of the house, use baby gates
or close doors to keep him out of rooms he shouldn't go in. (Puppies are notorious for finding out of the way corners
to have accidents in - keep him in an area where you can watch him). If you give him too much freedom too soon, he'll
probably make a mistake. After playtime, take him outside again then tuck him into his crate for a nap.
first month or so, you'll be feeding 3-4 meals per day. Repeat the same procedure throughout the day: potty outside
1st thing in the morning, 1 hour playtime, potty, meal in crate, potty, playtime, potty, nap, potty, playtime, meal, etc.
The playtimes can be lengthened as the puppy gets older and is more reliable. Eventually the puppy will be letting you
know when he needs to go out but remember - if you ignore his request or don't move quickly he'll have an accident!
I know this sounds like a lot of work and it is! The results of all this running' in and out will pay off in a well-housebroken
puppy and clean carpets. Keep in mind that some breeds are easier to housebreak
than others and how the puppy was
raised before it came to you has an affect, too. Pet store puppies who were allowed to use wire-bottom crates have less
inclination to keep their crates clean. Puppies that were raised in garages or other large areas where they could "go"
wherever will also be a little more difficult. Don't give up though - you can train them, it will just take a little
A word about paper-training: It seems harmless to leave papers about
"just in case" and for us who work all day, it's a necessity. However, paper-training your pup will make the overall
job of housebreaking that much harder and take longer. By only allowing the pup to relieve itself outside, you're teaching
it that it's not acceptable to use the house. Using newspapers will override this training. Also, be aware that
many puppies get the notion that going potty NEAR the papers is as good as going ON them! If you must use newspapers
when you're gone, keep to the regular housebreaking schedule when you're at home. Get the puppy outside often enough and don't
leave papers out "just in case".
Keep your dog's yard picked up and free of old stools. Many dogs
choose an area to use as a bathroom. If left to become filthy, they'll refuse to use it and do their business in the
house instead! If your dog has to be tied up when he's outside, keeping the area clean is even more critical. If you
could only move about in a small area, you wouldn't want to lie next to the toilet, would you? Picking up stools helps
you keep tabs on your dog's health as well. Stools should be firm and fairly dry. Loose, sloppy stools can be
an indication of worms, health problems, stress or digestive upset.
You can use a modified puppy schedule to train an un-house broken dog
or one that's having housebreaking problems. Start from the beginning just like a puppy, use a crate and put them on
a schedule. An older dog can be expected to control itself for longer periods provided you take it outside at
critical times - 1st thing in the morning, after meals and last thing at night. Until they're reliable, get them outside every
3-4 hours in between those times. Adopted older dogs that have always had freedom
may be unwilling to have a bowel movement
when on a leash. You can either walk them longer or keep them confined until they really got go. Just like a puppy,
don't give them the run of the house and keep them in a crate or small area if you can't supervise them. You can give
them more freedom as they become more reliable.
What to do
if the puppy has an accident
Remember, this method of housebreaking
is based on PREVENTING accidents. By faithfully taking the dog out often enough, you'll get faster results than if you discipline
the puppy after the accident has
already happened. If you puppy makes a mistake because you didn't get him out when
you should have - it's not his fault!
If you catch the pup in the act, stay calm. Holler NO while you scoop
the puppy up immediately - don't wait for him to stop piddling - and carry him outside to an area he's used before.
As you set him on the
ground, tell him "THIS IS WHERE YOU GO PODDY!" and praise him as he finishes the job.
Leave him out a few more minutes to make sure he's done before bringing him back in.
This is a little
trickier with an adult dog especially if he's new to you and you don't know how he'll react to being grabbed and thrust outside.
Holler NO and put a leash on to take him out and show him where the bathroom is. Make a point of getting the dog out
more often in the future!
ANY other corrections such as rubbing his nose in it, smacking with newspapers, yelling,
beating or slapping only confuse and scare the dog. If you come across an "old" accident, it really doesn't pay to get
too excited about it. Dogs aren't smart enough to connect a past act with your present anger and he won't understand
what you're so mad about. He'll act guilty but it's only because he knows you're mad at him. He has no real idea
why. Point the spot out to him and say "WHAT IS THIS?" but that should be limit of your correction.
Keep in mind
that health problems, changes in diet and emotional upsets (moving to a new home, adding a new pet or family member, etc.)
can cause temporary lapses in housetraining. Diabetes in adult dogs and
urinary tract infections in both puppies and adults
can cause dogs to have to urinate more often. Urinary infections in young female puppies are common. A symptom
is frequent squatting with little urine release. If you suspect a physical problem, please take your dog for an examination.
changes in dog food brands or overindulgence in treats or table scraps can cause diarrhea. Dogs don't need much variety
in their diets so you're not harming yours by staying to one brand of food. If you make a change, do it gradually by
mixing a little of the new food with the old, gradually increasing the amount of new food every day. A sudden change of water
can cause digestive upset, too. If you're moving or traveling, take along a couple gallons of "home" water to mix with
the new. Distilled water from the grocery store can also be used.
If you've worked hard with this training method, you won't have many!
Put your puppy (or adult dog) away out of sight while you clean up a puddle. Dog mothers clean up after their babies
but you don't want your puppy to think that YOU do, too! Clean up on linoleum is self-explanatory. On carpeting,
get lots of paper towel and continue blotting with fresh paper until you've lifted as much liquid as possible.
are several home-made and commercially available "odor killers" that are helpful. In a pinch, plain white vinegar will
work to help neutralize the odor and the ammonia in the urine. (Don't use a cleaner
with ammonia - it'll make it
worse!) Sprinkle baking soda on the spot to soak up moisture and to help neutralize odor, vacuum when dry. At the pet
store, you can find a good selection of products that may be more effective. A diarrhea stain on carpeting or upholstery can
be lifted with a gentle solution of lukewarm water, dishwashing soap and white vinegar.
are attracted to urine odors and their noses are much better than ours! Even when using a commercial odor killer, a
teeny residue will be left behind that our dogs can smell. Keep an eye on that spot in the future! This remarkable
scenting ability does have an advantage - if you must paper-train your dog and he doesn't know what newspapers are for yet,
"house-breaking pads" are available at your pet store. Treated with a mild attractive odor (too weak for us to smell),
your puppy will gladly use them!
Advice for owners of male
Your male puppy will begin to lift his leg between 4-9 months of age.
It signals the activation of his sexual drive and instinct to "mark" territory. This is a perfect age to neuter your
dog and avoid the
unwanted behaviors that accompany sexual maturity - marking in inappropriate places, fighting and aggression
toward other male dogs. Intact (un-neutered) males will mark any upright object and are especially hard on your shubbery and
trees. Some males will also mark inside the house, particularly if another dog comes to visit or if you're visiting
in someone else's home. If you use your male for breeding, you can expect this behavior to get worse. Neutering your
dog will protect his health, help him to live longer and be a better pet along with improving his house manners!
housebreaking guide was written by Vicki Rodenberg
and published as a service of the Chow Chow
Welfare Committee. For further information, contact the
Committee at 9828 E. Co. A, Janesville, WI 53546
I love my little puppy; she makes my house a home.
She is my very sweetest little friend; I never feel alone.
She makes me smile; She makes me laugh; She fills my heart with love
. . .
Did some person breed her, or did she
fall from above?
I've never been a breeder, never seen life through their eyes;
I hold my little puppy
and sometimes criticize.
I've never known their anguish; I've never felt their pain,
the caring of
their charges, through snow or wind or rain.
I've never waited the whole night through for babies to be born,
The stress and trepidation when they're still not there by morn.
The weight of responsibility for this body in
This darling little baby, who weighs but 60 grams.
Should you do that instead of this . . . or
maybe that was wrong?
Alone you fight and hope, one day, he'll grow up proud and strong.
You pray he'll
live to bring great joy to someone else's home.
You know it's all just up to you; you'll fight this fight
Formula, bottles, heating pads, you've got to get this right,
two-hour feedings for this tiny guy,
throughout the day and night.
Within your heart you dread that you will surely lose this fight,
To save this little
baby, but God willing . . . you just MIGHT.
Day one; he's in there fighting; you say a silent prayer.
two & three, he's doing well, with lots of love and care.
Day four & five . . . he's still alive; your
hopes soar to the
Day six he slips away again, dies in your hands, day seven.
You take this
little angel, and bury him alone.
With aching heart and burning tears, and an exhausted groan,
You ask yourself,
"Why do this? . . . Why suffer through this pain?"
Yet watch the joy your puppies bring, and everything's
So, when you think of breeders, don't think of them with "greed,"
Think of all
that they endure to fill another's need.
For when you buy your puppy, with your precious dollars part,
pay with money . . . while they pay with all their heart.
.... Author Unknown....
© Guardian Dachshunds
All rights reserved. No portion may be copied or redistributed in any form.